We aimed to evaluate trends in bone mineral density (BMD) and the prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia in U.S. adults with prediabetes and normal glucose regulation (NGR) and further investigate the association among prediabetes, osteopenia/osteoporosis, and fracture.
We collected and analyzed data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during the period from 2005 to 2014. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD data were available for 5,310 adults with prediabetes and 5,162 adults with NGR >40 years old.
A shift was observed toward a lower BMD and a higher prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis at the femoral neck and lumbar spine in U.S. adults >40 years old with prediabetes since 2005, especially in men <60 and women ≥60 years old. A shift toward a higher prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis at the femoral neck was also observed in adults >40 years old with NGR. Moreover, prediabetes was associated with a higher prevalence of hip fracture, although participants with prediabetes had higher BMD and a lower prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis at the femoral neck.
There was a declining trend in BMD from 2005 to 2014 in U.S. adults >40 years old with prediabetes and NGR, and this trend was more significant in men <60 years old. Populations with prediabetes may be exposed to relatively higher BMD but a higher prevalence of fracture.