Reparixin is an inhibitor of CXCR1/2 chemokine receptor shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory adjuvant in a pilot clinical trial in allotransplant recipients.
A phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-assignment study (NCT01817959) was conducted in recipients of islet allotransplants randomized (2:1) to reparixin or placebo in addition to immunosuppression. Primary outcome was the area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide during the mixed-meal tolerance test at day 75 ± 5 after the first and day 365 ± 14 after the last transplant. Secondary end points included insulin independence and standard measures of glycemic control.
The intention-to-treat analysis did not show a significant difference in C-peptide AUC at both day 75 (27 on reparixin vs. 18 on placebo, P = 0.99) and day 365 (24 on reparixin vs. 15 on placebo, P = 0.71). There was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups at any time point for any secondary variable. Analysis of patient subsets showed a trend for a higher percentage of subjects retaining insulin independence for 1 year after a single islet infusion in patients receiving reparixin as compared with patients receiving placebo (26.7% vs. 0%, P = 0.09) when antithymocyte globulin was used as induction immunosuppression.
In this first double-blind randomized trial, islet transplantation data obtained with reparixin do not support a role of CXCR1/2 inhibition in preventing islet inflammation-mediated damage.