Although patients with type 1 diabetes have a poor prognosis after a stroke, predictors of survival after an incident stroke in these patients are poorly studied.
In this observational study, a total of 144 patients of 4,083 with type 1 diabetes from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study suffered an incident stroke in 1997–2010, and were followed for a mean 3.4 ± 3.1 years after the stroke. Information was recorded on hard cardiovascular events and death as a result of cardiovascular or diabetes-related cause, collectively referred to as vascular composite end point. Information was collected from medical records, death certificates, and the National Care Register of Health Care. Predictors at the time of the incident stroke were studied for the end points.
During follow-up, 104 (72%) patients suffered a vascular composite end point. Of these, 33 (32%) had a recurrent stroke, 33 (32%) a hard cardiovascular event, and 76 (53%) died of cardiovascular or diabetes-related causes, with an overall 1-year survival of 76% and 5-year survival of 58%. The predictors of a vascular composite end point were hemorrhagic stroke subtype (hazard ratio 2.03 [95% CI 1.29–3.19]), as well as chronic kidney disease stage 2 (2.48 [1.17–5.24]), stage 3 (3.04 [1.54–6.04]), stage 4 (3.95 [1.72–9.04]), and stage 5 (6.71 [3.14–14.34]). All-cause mortality increased with deteriorating kidney function.
Patients with type 1 diabetes with an incident stroke have a poor cardiovascular prognosis and a high risk of all-cause mortality. In particular, hemorrhagic stroke subtype and progression of diabetic kidney disease conveys worse outcome.