Predictors of Quality of Life and Other Patient-Reported Outcomes in the PANORAMA Multinational Study of People With Type 2 Diabetes


PANORAMA, a nine-country cross-sectional type 2 diabetes study, investigated factors associated with quality of life (QoL), health status, and other patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).


Patients were randomly or consecutively selected from primary/secondary care. PROMs included the Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL) (generic QoL item and average weighted impact [AWI] scores), Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) (patient- and physician-completed), Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-II worry subscale, and the EuroQoL–5 Dimension visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) measuring patient-reported health. Multivariable linear regression analyses determined predictors of each PROM including patient characteristics, physician-reported adherence, complications, and glycosylated hemoglobin.


In 5,813 patients, mean PROM scores indicated that generic QoL approximated "good" (0.93); perceived impact of diabetes on QoL was negative (AWI –1.69). Treatment satisfaction exceeded physicians’ estimates (patient-reported: 29.76; physician-estimated: 27.75), but so did patients’ perceived frequency of hypo-/hyperglycemia. Worry about hypoglycemia (13.27) was apparent. Intensifying treatments to three oral agents or insulin regimens predicted worse QoL (AWI P < 0.01). Insulin alone use predicted worse QoL (generic P < 0.02; AWI P < 0.001) and hypoglycemia worry (P < 0.007). No treatment had significant associations with EQ-VAS health status.


Predictors for different PROMs differed markedly and provided insights for understanding and improving these important outcomes. Intensive treatment regimens had significant negative associations with all PROMs, except the EQ-VAS health status measure. The findings demonstrate the importance of measuring QoL alongside health status and other patient-reported outcomes when evaluating diabetes treatments with a view to protecting QoL and facilitating adherence and long-term glycemic control.

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