Understanding the risk factors associated with progression and regression of dyslipidemia in youth with type 1 diabetes may guide treatments.
We studied 1,478 youth with type 1 diabetes (age 10.8 ± 3.9 years, 50% male, 77% non-Hispanic white, not on lipid-lowering medications) at baseline and at a mean follow-up of 7.1 ± 1.9 years in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study. Progression to dyslipidemia was defined as normal lipid concentrations at baseline and abnormal at follow-up (non–HDL-cholesterol [C] >130 mg/dL or HDL-C <35 mg/dL). Regression was defined as abnormal lipids at baseline and normal at follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with progression and regression compared with stable normal and stable abnormal, respectively. An area under the curve (AUC) variable was used for the time-varying covariates A1C and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR).
Non–HDL-C progressed, regressed, was stable normal, and stable abnormal in 19%, 5%, 69%, and 7% of youth with type 1 diabetes, respectively. Corresponding percentages for HDL-C were 3%, 3%, 94%, and 1%, respectively. Factors associated with non–HDL-C progression were higher A1C AUC and higher WHtR AUC in males. Non–HDL-C regression was associated with lower WHtR AUC, and HDL-C progression was associated with male sex and higher WHtR AUC. HDL-C regression was not modeled due to small numbers.
A1C and WHtR are modifiable risk factors associated with change in dyslipidemia over time in youth with type 1 diabetes.