The objective of this study was to determine the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of a predictive hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia minimization (PHHM) system compared with predictive low-glucose insulin suspension (PLGS) alone in overnight glucose control.
A 42-night trial was conducted in 30 individuals with type 1 diabetes in the age range 15–45 years. Participants were randomly assigned each night to either PHHM or PLGS and were blinded to the assignment. The system suspended the insulin pump on both the PHHM and PLGS nights for predicted hypoglycemia but delivered correction boluses for predicted hyperglycemia on PHHM nights only. The primary outcome was the percentage of time spent in a sensor glucose range of 70–180 mg/dL during the overnight period.
The addition of automated insulin delivery with PHHM increased the time spent in the target range (70–180 mg/dL) from 71 ± 10% during PLGS nights to 78 ± 10% during PHHM nights (P < 0.001). The average morning blood glucose concentration improved from 163 ± 23 mg/dL after PLGS nights to 142 ± 18 mg/dL after PHHM nights (P < 0.001). Various sensor-measured hypoglycemic outcomes were similar on PLGS and PHHM nights. All participants completed 42 nights with no episodes of severe hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or other study- or device-related adverse events.
The addition of a predictive hyperglycemia minimization component to our existing PLGS system was shown to be safe, feasible, and effective in overnight glucose control.