Plasma Alkylresorcinol Metabolite, a Biomarker of Whole-Grain Wheat and Rye Intake, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation in a Chinese Population


To examine the association of plasma alkylresorcinol metabolite 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA), a biomarker of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in a Chinese population.


A total of 1,060 newly diagnosed T2D patients, 736 newly diagnosed IGR patients, and 1,443 control subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited in the case-control study. Plasma DHPPA concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent association of plasma DHPPA concentrations with the likelihood of T2D and IGR.


After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and family history of diabetes, the odds ratios (95% CI) of T2D and IGR were 0.57 (0.45, 0.73) and 0.66 (0.50, 0.85), respectively, comparing the lowest with the highest quartile of plasma DHPPA concentrations. Further adjustment for current smoking status, current alcohol consumption, physical activity, history of hypertension, and educational level did not change the observed association materially. Similar results were also obtained in T2D and IGR groups combined. The inverse association of plasma DHPPA with T2D persisted in stratified analyses according to age, sex, BMI, current smoking status, current alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, and history of hypertension.


These findings suggested that higher plasma DHPPA concentrations were associated with lower odds of T2D and IGR. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings in prospective cohorts.

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