Health Care Costs Associated With Incident Complications in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Germany


The aim of this study is to provide reliable regression-based estimates of costs associated with different type 2 diabetes complications.


We used nationwide statutory health insurance (SHI) data from 316,220 patients with type 2 diabetes. Costs for inpatient and outpatient care, pharmaceuticals, rehabilitation, and nonmedical aids and appliances were assessed in the years 2013–2015. Quarterly observations are available for each year. We estimated costs (in 2015 euro) for complications using a generalized estimating equations model with a normal distribution adjusted for age, sex, occurrence of different complications, and history of complications at baseline, 2012. Two- and threefold interactions were included in an extended model.


The base case model estimated total costs in the quarter of event for the example of a 60- to 69-year-old man as follows: diabetic foot 1,293, amputation 14,284, retinopathy 671, blindness 2,933, nephropathy 3,353, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) 22,691, nonfatal stroke 9,769, fatal stroke 11,176, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI)/cardiac arrest (CA) 8,035, fatal MI/CA 8,700, nonfatal ischemic heart disease (IHD) 6,548, fatal IHD 20,942, chronic heart failure 3,912, and angina pectoris 2,695. In the subsequent quarters, costs ranged from 681 for retinopathy to 6,130 for ESRD.


Type 2 diabetes complications have a significant impact on total health care costs in the SHI system, not only in the quarter of event but also in subsequent years. Men and women from different age-groups differ in their costs for complications. Our comprehensive estimates may support the parametrization of diabetes models and help clinicians and policy makers to quantify the economic burden of diabetes complications in the context of new prevention and treatment programs.

Bekijk het originele bericht

Wellicht vindt u dit ook interessant

Meld u aan voor de maandelijkse nieuwsbrief


Patiëntvoorbeelden m.b.t. vergoeding

Voeg je koptekst hier toe

Vergoeding diabetesmiddelen


Er zijn 2 soorten terugbetalingsregelingen:
* TBR: patiënt declareert online of per post of de apotheker declareert namens de patiënt online
** HEVO-Consult: patiënt betaalt kosten eerst zelf en stuurt declaratie naar HEVO-Consult