Five-Year Cost-effectiveness of the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Programme-Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM)


To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Programme–Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes in comparison with usual primary care in a cohort with 5 years’ follow-up.


We conducted a prospective cohort study among 17,140 propensity score–matched participants in RAMP-DM and those under usual primary care. The effectiveness measures were cumulative incidences of complications and all-cause mortality over 5 years. In a bottom-up approach, we estimated the program costs of RAMP-DM and health service utilization from the public health service provider’s perspective. The RAMP-DM program costs included the setup costs, ongoing intervention costs, and central administrative costs. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio by dividing the incremental costs by the incremental effectiveness of the RAMP-DM group compared with those of the usual-care group.


There were significantly lower cumulative incidences of individual on any complications (15.34% vs. 28.65%, P < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (7.96% vs. 21.35%, P < 0.001) in the RAMP-DM group compared with the usual-care group. The mean program cost of RAMP-DM was 157 U.S. dollars (range 66–209) per participant over 5 years. The costs of health service utilization among participants in RAMP-DM group was 7,451 USD less than that of the usual-care group, resulting in a net savings of 7,294 USD per individual.


RAMP-DM added to usual primary care was a cost-saving intervention in managing diabetes in patients over 5 years. These findings support the integration of RAMP-DM as part of routine primary care for all patients with diabetes.

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