ITCA 650 is a subdermal osmotic mini-pump that continuously delivers exenatide subcutaneously for 3–6 months. The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ITCA 650 added to diet and exercise alone or combined with metformin, sulfonylurea, or thiazolidinedione monotherapy or a combination of these drugs was evaluated in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who were ineligible for participation in a placebo-controlled study (FREEDOM-1) because of severe hyperglycemia (HbA1c >10% [86 mmol/mol]).
This 39-week, open-label, phase 3 trial enrolled patients aged 18–80 years with HbA1c >10% to ≤12% (86–108 mmol/mol) and BMI 25–45 kg/m2. Patients received ITCA 650 20 μg/day for 13 weeks, then 60 μg/day for 26 weeks. The primary end point was change in HbA1c at week 39.
Sixty patients were enrolled. At baseline, mean HbA1c was 10.8% (94.7 mmol/mol) and mean (± SD) duration of diabetes was 8.6 (± 5.3) years. At week 39, there was a mean reduction in HbA1c of –2.8% (–30.3 mmol/mol; P < 0.001 vs. baseline) and in body weight of –1.2 kg (P = 0.105), and 25% of patients achieved HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol). A reduction in HbA1c of ≥1% (≥10.9 mmol/mol) occurred in 90% of patients. The most common adverse events were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. Gastrointestinal adverse events were generally transient and subsided over time; only 4 patients (6.7%) discontinued for gastrointestinal events.
Treatment with ITCA 650, the first injection-free glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, resulted in significant improvements in glycemic control in poorly controlled long-standing T2D patients with a high baseline HbA1c >10%.