Limited data exist regarding safety and efficacy of antihyperglycemic drugs in older patients with type 2 diabetes. The Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing the impact of sitagliptin on a primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or unstable angina hospitalizations in patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5% [48 mmol/mol] and ≤8.0% [64 mmol/mol]) and cardiovascular disease. We analyzed baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes for TECOS participants aged ≥75 years.
Clinical and safety event summaries are presented for older versus younger participants and for the treatment groups within the older cohort.
Of 14,351 participants with age recorded, 2,004 (14%) were ≥75 years old (mean age 78.3 years [SD 3.1]), with 68% men and type 2 diabetes duration median 12.0 years (IQR 7, 21). During 2.9 years median follow-up, older participants had higher rates of the primary outcome (6.46 vs. 3.67 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio 1.72 [95% CI 1.52–1.94]), death (2.52 [2.20–2.89]), severe hypoglycemia (1.53 [1.15–2.03]), and fractures (1.84 [1.44–2.35]). In the older cohort, sitagliptin did not significantly impact the primary composite (1.10 [0.89–1.36]), death (1.05 [0.83–1.32]), heart failure hospitalization (0.99 [0.65–1.49]), severe hypoglycemia (1.03 [0.62–1.71]), rates of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, or serious adverse events.
Among older patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, sitagliptin had neutral effects on cardiovascular risk and raised no significant safety concerns.