Anti–programmed cell death-1 (anti-PD-1) antibodies have revolutionized advanced cancer therapy. Anti-PD-1 therapy is responsible for immune-related adverse events, with frequent endocrine manifestations, including acute-onset type 1 diabetes. Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is a rare disease, believed to be immune mediated, characterized by loss of adipose tissue and insulin resistance–associated complications.
We describe the first reported case of AGL induced by immune checkpoint therapy.
A 62-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma treated with nivolumab was referred for major hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. She had presented with a rapidly progressive generalized loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Diabetes was associated with severe insulin resistance and undetectable plasma leptin. Subcutaneous biopsy revealed atrophic adipose tissue infiltrated with cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes and fibrosis.
AGL is an additional immune-related adverse event of anti-PD-1 therapy that leads to severe insulin resistance–associated complications.